Processing and printing of the film is performed by laboratories, rather than members of the film crew. The editor is responsible for selecting shots from the raw footage and arranging them into the order specified in the shooting script. Further reworking is often supervised by the director. The editing process may be done by physically cutting sections of the printed filmstrip, or may now be done on a computer, using systems such as Final Cut Pro or Avid (a high proportion of editing work is now done digitally). Much of the technical and administrative work is performed by an assistant film editor.
The photographed images may still require additions or modifications. Whereas special effects are created in front of the camera, visual effects are added in postproduction under the direction of the visual effects supervisor. Alterations to the image may include erasing a boom or a light that has accidentally got into the frame, integrating digitally created characters with live action, or changing the color of the sky so that shots filmed at different times match up when edited together. Most visual effects work is now done using computer technology. Some common crew members include modelers and animators, who create the components that need to be integrated with live footage, and digital compositors, who combine various visual elements.
An animator creates a series of individual frames that produce the illusion of movement when filmed sequentially. Animation may sometimes be incorporated into live action films, but is often designed not to be noticed as such. This kind of work normally falls to the visual effects department. Some of the main roles include the key animator, who creates strategic frames, such as the poses a character takes at the start and end of a movement, and "in-betweeners," who create the intermediate frames, guided by the "dope sheet" on which the appointed timings are detailed. In cel animation, an opaquer colors in the outlines drawn onto each frame. Now that much animation is done digitally, new roles have emerged, such as rendering, which involves applying texture, color, and detail to the three-dimensional "wire-frame" contour of a character or object, and that of software engineer, who designs and programs the computer systems.
The title designer is responsible for the placement of cast and crew credits and may also design the title sequence in its entirety. Much of the work is now done digitally, as motion graphics have eroded the separation between pictures and text. Sometimes an entire department is needed to create the title sequence, if live action footage needs to be shot, animation must be created, or complex visual effects are required. For this reason, the work is often outsourced to dedicated title houses.