Although the nature of radio changed dramatically once TV came onto the scene, some studios did maintain a persistent presence in radio ownership and production. Warner Bros., Paramount, RKO, and MGM all owned radio stations, and also got in on television station ownership early. MGM went into syndicated radio program production and distribution in the late 1940s, with such programs as The MGM Theater of the Air and Maisie . Just as film companies diversified into television, they also began to acquire interests in the music industry, the new backbone of radio. For example, the Disney Corporation holds extensive interests in music recording, and through its merger with ABC in 1995 came to own radio stations that reach 24 percent of US households. Twentieth Century Fox was purchased by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation in the 1980s and is now linked with satellite music channels worldwide. News Corp. also owns the Australian Mushroom and Festival record labels. And in this age of synergy, the tie between movies and music has become tighter than ever before, with movie soundtracks used to promote artists and recordings, and soundtrack releases often achieving billions in sales.

In the era of new media, where the lines between film, radio, television, music, recordings, and the Internet seem to be growing blurrier every day, the integrated entertainment corporations formerly designated by the term "Hollywood" have fingers in nearly every form of media that reaches into the home—or anywhere the viewer might be. Now Internet radio technology gives companies the ability to go online with their own "radio" services. already provides a schedule of music and features from its films and artists, oriented toward children. Television shows on studio-owned networks promote recordings distributed by the company's record arm, which become hits on pop radio. Recording stars launch film careers; film and television stars, like Janeane Garofalo and Al Franken, start radio careers. Although in the United States the days of radio drama and comedy faded long ago, transferring their stars and audiences to television, the film industry continues to play a vital behind-the-scenes role linking radio to a host of other media. Without Hollywood, American radio could never have risen to the heights of creativity and popularity it achieved in its heyday. Without radio, Hollywood as we know it today would be missing some of its brightest lights and most memorable ingredients. The twenty-first century's digital media promise to bring these two media venues into an ever closer relationship.

SEE ALSO Sound ; Technology ; Television

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Gomery, Douglas. "Toward an Economic History of the Cinema: The Coming of Sound to Hollywood." In The Cinematic Apparatus , edited by Stephen Heath and Teresa de Lauretis, 38–46. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982.

Hilmes, Michele. "Femmes Boff Program Toppers: Women Break into Prime Time, 1943–1948." In Transmitting the Past: Historical and Cultural Perspectives on Broadcasting , edited by Susan Brinson and J. Emmett Winn, 137–160. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2004.

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Smoodin, Eric. "Motion Pictures and Television, 1930–1945." Journal of the University Film and Video Association (Summer 1982): 3–18.

Michele Hilmes

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