Yugoslavia



SLOVENIA

Despite its relatively small size, and with a population of less than two million, Slovenia developed a distinctive film culture within Yugoslavia and after gaining independence. Building on its strong cinematic tradition going back to the turn of the twentieth century, post-World War II Slovene cinema brought international recognition for Yugoslavia. In the 1940s and 1950s France Štiglic (1919–1993) won numerous awards at film festivals and Jože Gale (1913–2004) was recognized for his feature-length children's films. The "new wave" tendencies were best represented by Boštjan Hladnik (b. 1929) and Matjaž Klopčič (b. 1934), whose films rejuvenated Slovene cinema with new themes and interesting visual styles. Karpo Aćimović-Godina (b. 1943) is often considered the most original Slovenian director, with a number of masterpieces that include the avant-garde Splav meduze ( The Medusa Raft , 1980). Throughout the Yugoslav period, Slovenian cinema maintained stability, producing from four to five feature films per year. Since gaining independence, Slovenian film production has centered around the Slovenian Film Fund. At least three films made in the 1990s deserve mentioning: Felix (Božo Šprajc, 1996), Outsider (Andrej Košak, 1997), and Ekspres, Ekspres ( Gone with the Train , Igor Šterk, 1996). Nikogaršnja zemlja ( No Man's Land , 2001), a Slovenian co-production dealing with the Bosnian war and directed by Bosnian director Danis Tanović, was awarded the 2002 Academy Award ® for best foreign film.

SEE ALSO Animation ; National Cinema

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Goulding, Daniel J. Liberated Cinema: The Yugoslav Experience, 1945–2001 . Rev. and expanded ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002.

——. Occupation in 26 Pictures . Wiltshire, UK: Flicks Books, 1998.

——, ed. Post New Wave Cinema in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Horton, Andrew. "The Rise and Fall of the Yugoslav Partisan Film: Cinematic Perceptions of a National Identity." Film Criticism 12, no. 2 (1987): 18–27.

——. "Yugoslavia: Multi-Faceted Cinema," in World Cinema since 1945 . ed. William Luhr, New York: Ungar, 1987.

——, ed. The Celluloid Tinderbox: Yugoslav Screen Reflections of a Turbulent Decade . Telford, UK: Central Europe Review, 2000.

Iordanova, Dina. Cinema of Flames: Balkan Film, Culture, and the Media . London: British Film Institute, 2001.

——. "Kusturica's Underground : Historical Allegory or Propaganda?" Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 19, no. 1 (1999): 69–86.

——. "Women in New Balkan Cinema: Surviving on the Margins," Film Criticism 21, no. 2 (1996–97): 24–39.

Bohdan Y. Nebesio



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