Billy Crystal Biography (1947?-)

Full name, William Crystal; born March 14, 1947 (some sources cite 1948), inLong Beach, Long Island, NY; son of Jack (a record store manager, record company executive, and producer of jazz concerts) and Helen Crystal; nephew of Milt Gabler (a musician and songwriter); brother of Richard Crystal (a television producer); married Janice Goldfinger, June 4, 1970; children: Jennifer (anactress), Lindsay (an actress). Addresses: Agent: International Creative Management, 8942 Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills, CA 90211.; Manager: LarryBrezner, MBST Entertainment, 345 North Maple Dr., Suite 200, Beverly Hills,CA 90210.; Publicist: PMK/HBH Public Relations, 700 North San Vicente Blvd.,Suite G910, West Hollywood, CA 90069; 161 Avenue of the Americas, 10th Floor,New York, NY 10013.

Nationality
American
Gender
Male
Occupation
Actor, voice artist, comedian, producer, director, writer
Birth Details
March 14, 1947?
Long Island, New York, United States

Famous Works

  • CREDITS
  • Film Appearances
  • Lionel Carpenter, Rabbit Test, Avco Embassy, 1978
  • Voice of Lodge Turkell, Animalympics (animated), Barber Rose International Films, 1979
  • Morty the Mime, This Is Spinal Tap, Embassy, 1984
  • Danny Costanzo, Running Scared, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, 1986
  • Miracle Max, The Princess Bride, Twentieth Century-Fox, 1987
  • Larry Donner/Cousin Paddy, Throw Momma from the Train, Orion, 1987
  • Dr. Abbie Polin, Memories of Me, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, 1988
  • Harry Burns, When Harry Met Sally ... , Nelson Entertainment, 1989
  • Mitch Robbins, City Slickers, Columbia, 1991
  • Buddy Young Jr., Mr. Saturday Night, Columbia, 1992
  • Narrator, Horton Hatches the Egg, 1992
  • Mitch Robbins, City Slickers II: The Legend of Curly's Gold (alsoknown as City Slickers II and City Slickers: The Legend of Curly'sGold), Columbia, 1994
  • Mickey Gordon, Forget Paris, Columbia, 1995
  • First gravedigger, Hamlet (also known as William Shakespeare's"Hamlet"), Columbia, 1996
  • Jack Lawrence, Fathers' Day, Warner Bros., 1997
  • Larry (the Devil), Deconstructing Harry, Fine Line Features, 1997
  • Sam "Sammy" Kamin, My Giant, Sony Pictures Releasing, 1998
  • Himself, Get Bruce! (documentary), Miramax, 1999
  • Dr. Ben Sobol, Analyze This, 1999
  • (Uncredited) Academy Awards master of ceremonies, American Movie: TheMaking of Northwestern (documentary; also known as American Movie), Sony Pictures Classics, 1999
  • (Uncredited) Mattress salesman, The Adventures of Rocky & Bullwinkle (also known as Die abenteuer von Rocky und Bullwinkle), Universal, 2000
  • Himself, The Journey (documentary), Journey Productions, 2001
  • Lee Phillips, America's Sweethearts, Columbia, 2001
  • Voice of Mike Wazowski, Monsters, Inc. (animated), Buena Vista, 2001
  • Voice of Mike Wazowski, Mike's New Car (animated), Walt Disney, 2002
  • Dr. Ben Sobel, Analyze That, Warner Bros., 2002
  • Voice of Calcifer for English version, Hauru no ugoku shiro (alsoknown as Howl's Moving Castle), Buena Vista, 2004
  • Himself, Tell Them Who You Are (documentary), ThinkFilm, 2004
  • Film Work
  • Producer (with Alan King and Michael Hertzberg), Memories of Me, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, 1988
  • Executive producer, City Slickers, Columbia, 1991
  • Producer and director, Mr. Saturday Night, Columbia, 1992
  • Producer, City Slickers II: The Legend of Curly's Gold (also knownas City Slickers II and City Slickers: The Legend of Curly's Gold), Columbia, 1994
  • Producer and director, Forget Paris, Columbia, 1995
  • Producer, My Giant, Sony Pictures Releasing, 1998
  • Executive producer, Analyze This, 1999
  • Producer, America's Sweethearts, Columbia, 2001
  • Executive producer, Analyze That, Warner Bros., 2002
  • Television Appearances
  • Series
  • Jodie Dallas, Soap, ABC, 1977-81
  • Host, The Billy Crystal Comedy Hour, NBC, 1982
  • Saturday Night Live (also known as NBC's Saturday Night, Saturday Night, Saturday Night Live '80, SNL, and SNL 25), NBC, 1984-85
  • Specials
  • ABC team member, Battle of the Network Stars, ABC, 1976, 1977, 1978
  • Guest, The 36 Most Beautiful Girls in Texas, ABC, 1978
  • Cohost, Battle of the Network Stars, ABC, 1979
  • Player, The Celebrity Football Classic, NBC, 1979
  • The TV Show, ABC, 1979
  • Guest, Doug Henning's World of Magic, NBC, 1982
  • Catch a Rising Star's 10th Anniversary, 1982
  • Tony Manetti, "Split Decision," Likely Stories, Vol. 3, 1983
  • Host, Billy Crystal: A Comic's Line, HBO, 1984
  • Host, A Comedy Salute to Baseball, NBC, 1985
  • Guest, The Night of 100 Stars II, ABC, 1985
  • Witness, Richard Lewis "I'm in Pain" Concert, Showtime, 1985
  • Cohost, Comic Relief, HBO, 1986
  • Host, "Billy Crystal--Don't Get Me Started," On Location, HBO, 1986
  • Guest, Kraft Salutes the George Burns Ninetieth Birthday Special (also known as George Burns' 90th Birthday Special), CBS, 1986
  • Comic Relief: Backstage Pass, 1986
  • Cohost, Comic Relief II, HBO, 1987
  • The Lost Minutes of Billy Crystal, HBO, 1987
  • An All-Star Celebration: The 1988 Vote, ABC, 1988
  • An All-Star Toast to the Improv, HBO, 1988
  • Get Out the Vote, 1988
  • Life's Most Embarrassing Moments, syndicated, 1988
  • All-Star Tribute to Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, NBC, 1989
  • Midnight Train to Moscow, HBO, 1989
  • The Barbara Walters Special, ABC, 1989
  • Cohost, Comic Relief III, HBO, 1989
  • Grand Slam, syndicated, 1989
  • Saturday Night Live Fifteenth Anniversary, NBC, 1989
  • Cohost, Comic Relief IV, HBO, 1990
  • Overtime ... with Pat O'Brien, CBS, 1990
  • Guest, Robert Wuhl's World Tour, HBO, 1990
  • The World of Jewish Humor, PBS, 1990
  • Wolf Trap Salutes Victor Borge: An 80th Birthday Celebration, PBS,1990
  • A Comedy Salute to Michael Jordan, NBC, 1991
  • Entertainers '91: The Top Twenty of the Year, ABC, 1991
  • Member of choir, Voices that Care, Fox, 1991
  • HBO's 20th Anniversary--We Hardly Believe It Ourselves, CBS/HBO, 1992
  • Muhammad Ali's 50th Birthday Celebration, ABC, 1992
  • Cohost, Comic Relief V, HBO, 1992
  • When It Was a Game 2, HBO, 1992
  • Wax Cracks Hollywood, HBO, 1993
  • "What Is This Thing Called Love?," The Barbara Walters Special, ABC, 1993
  • But ... Seriously, Showtime, 1994
  • "Addicted to Fame," First Person with Maria Shriver, NBC, 1994
  • Cohost, Comic Relief VI, HBO, 1994
  • The 10th Annual Television Academy Hall of Fame, The Disney Channel, 1994
  • All-Star 25th Birthday: Stars and Street Forever! (also known as Sesame Street's All-Star 25th Birthday: Stars and Street Forever!), ABC, 1994
  • (In archive footage) 20 Years of Comedy on HBO, HBO, 1995
  • Interviewee, Countdown to Comic Relief, Comedy Central, 1995
  • Cohost, Comic Relief VII, HBO, 1995
  • Hollywood Stars: A Century of Cinema (also known as A Century of Cinema), The Disney Channel, 1995
  • The Making of "Forget Paris", 1995
  • What Makes You Laugh?, 1995
  • Correspondent, "Extra Point," Real Sports with Bryant Gumbel, HBO,1995
  • Segment host, Caesar's Writers, PBS, 1996
  • Catch a Rising Star 50th Anniversary--Give or Take 26 Years, CBS,1996
  • Cohost, Comic Relief's 10th Anniversary, HBO, 1996
  • I Am Your Child (also known as From Zero to Three), ABC, 1997
  • (Uncredited) Interviewee, Sports on the Silver Screen, HBO, 1997
  • Steve Allen's 75th Birthday Celebration, PBS, 1997
  • Canned Ham: Deconstructing Harry, Comedy Central, 1997
  • Interviewee, Countdown to Comic Relief 8, Comedy Central, 1998
  • Host, Comic Relief VIII, HBO, 1998
  • Tony Bennett: An All-Star Tribute--Live by Request, Arts and Entertainment, 1998
  • AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movies, CBS, 1998
  • Host, Warner Bros. Story: No Guts, No Glory: 75 Years of Laughter,TNT, 1998
  • Saturday Night Live 25th Anniversary, NBC, 1999
  • Master of ceremonies for opening ceremony, 1999 Special Olympics--World Summer Games, 1999
  • Narrator, "There's a Nightmare in My Closet," Goodnight Moon and OtherSleepytime Tales, HBO, 1999
  • Howard Cosell: Telling It Like It Is, HBO, 1999
  • NFL All-Star Comedy Blitz, CBS, 1999
  • Radio City Music Hall's Grand Re-Opening Gala, NBC, 1999
  • The Daily Show with Jon Stewart Interview Special: Billy Crystal,Comedy Central, 1999
  • Interviewee, Yogi Berra: Deja vu All Over Again, PBS, 1999
  • Saturday Night Live: 25th Anniversary Primetime Special, NBC, 1999
  • Saturday Night Live: Game Show Parodies, NBC, 1999
  • The AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Stars, CBS, 1999
  • AFI's 100 Years, 100 Laughs: America's Funniest Movies, CBS, 2000
  • Interviewee, When It Was a Game 3, HBO, 2000
  • The Comedy Central Presents the New York Friars Club Roast of Rob Reiner, Comedy Central, 2000
  • The Kennedy Center: Mark Twain Prize--Celebrating Whoopi Goldberg,PBS, 2001
  • Interviewee, Jack Palance: From Grit to Grace, Arts and Entertainment, 2001
  • The Concert for New York City, VH1, 2001
  • Muhammad Ali: Through the Eyes of the World, 2001
  • Billy Connolly: A BAFTA Tribute, BBC (England), 2002
  • Reel Comedy: Analyze That, Comedy Central, 2002
  • AFI Life Achievement Award: A Tribute to Robert De Niro, USA Network, 2003
  • Interviewee, When Stand-up Comics Ruled the World, VH1, 2004
  • A Tribute to Joe Mantegna, 2004
  • 101 Most Unforgettable SNL Moments, E! Entertainment Television, 2004
  • Spinal Tap Goes to 20, Independent Film Channel, 2004
  • Interviewee, Inside the Actors Studio: 10th Anniversary Special, Bravo, 2004
  • Interviewee, The Barbara Walters Special, ABC, 2004
  • Interviewee, AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Movie Quotes: America's GreatestQuips, Comebacks, and Catchphrases, CBS, 2005
  • Also appeared in Dean Martin Celebrity Roast.
  • Awards Presentations
  • The 28th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1986
  • Host, The 29th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1987
  • Presenter, The 60th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1988
  • Host, The 30th Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1988
  • The 61st Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1989
  • Host, The 31st Annual Grammy Awards, CBS, 1989
  • The 4th Annual American Comedy Awards, ABC, 1990
  • Host, The 62nd Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1990
  • Host, The 63rd Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1991
  • Host, The 64th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1992
  • The 6th Annual American Comedy Awards, ABC, 1992
  • Host, The 65th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1993
  • The 7th Annual American Comedy Awards, ABC, 1993
  • Presenter, The Jim Thorpe Pro Sports Awards, ABC, 1995
  • Host, The 69th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1997
  • Host, The 70th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1998
  • Presenter, Sports Illustrated's 20th Century Sports Awards, 1999
  • Host, The 72nd Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 2000
  • 2000 Blockbuster Entertainment Awards, Fox, 2000
  • Host, The 76th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 2004
  • Narrator, The 2004 ESPY Awards, ESPN, 2004
  • Movies
  • David, SST--Death Flight (also known as Death Flight, Flight of the Maiden, and SST: Disaster in the Sky), ABC, 1977
  • Myles Gordon, "Miles the Angel," Human Feelings, NBC, 1978
  • Danny Doyle, Breaking Up Is Hard to Do, ABC, 1979
  • Lieutenant Jacob "Jake" Beser, Enola Gay: The Men, the Mission, the Atomic Bomb, NBC, 1980
  • Voice of America, In Search of Dr. Seuss, TNT, 1994
  • Episodic
  • (As Bill Crystal) Guest, Saturday Night Live (also known as NBC's Saturday Night, Saturday Night, Saturday Night Live '80,SNL, and SNL 25), NBC, 1976
  • Al Bender, "New Year's Wedding," All in the Family, CBS, 1976
  • Guest, Fridays, 1976, 1977
  • Frequent guest, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, NBC, between 1977 and 1992
  • Shy young man (title role), "The Kissing Bandit," The Love Boat, ABC, 1978
  • Himself, "I Am Democracy," America 2-Night, syndicated, 1978
  • Guest host, Midnight Special, 1980
  • Paddy, "Make-Up," Darkroom, ABC, 1981
  • Guest host, Fridays, 1981
  • Guest, The Steve Allen Comedy Hour, 1981
  • Guest, Late Night with David Letterman, NBC, 1983, 1988
  • Larry (some sources cite Peter), "The Three Little Pigs," Faerie TaleTheatre, Showtime, 1984
  • Robert Klein Time, USA Network, 1988
  • Guest, Today, NBC, 1991, 2004
  • Himself, "Talk Show," The Larry Sanders Show, HBO, 1992
  • Narrator, "My New Neighbors," Shelley Duvall's Bedtime Stories, Showtime, 1992
  • Frequent guest, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, NBC, beginning 1992
  • Guest, The Whoopi Goldberg Show, syndicated, 1992
  • Guest, Late Show with David Letterman, CBS, beginning 1993
  • Guest, The Full Wax, BBC1 (England), 1993
  • Voice of Gary Grossman, "L.A. Jay," The Critic (animated), ABC, 1994
  • Guest, Clive Anderson Talks Back, Channel 4 (England), 1994, 1995
  • Voice of guest caller Jack, "Leapin' Lizards," Frasier, NBC, 1995
  • Himself, Muppets Tonight!, ABC, 1996
  • Guest, Inside the Actors Studio, Bravo, 1996
  • Tim, "The One with the Ultimate Fighting Champion," Friends, NBC,1997
  • Guest, The Rosie O'Donnell Show, syndicated, 1997, 1998
  • Guest, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, NBC, 1997
  • "The Best of Muppets Tonight!," Muppets Tonight, ABC, 1997
  • Celebrity square, Hollywood Squares, syndicated, 1998
  • Himself, Clive Anderson All Talk, BBC1, 1999
  • The Martin Short Show, NBC, 1999
  • "The Films of Rob Reiner," The Directors, Encore, 1999
  • Guest, The Howard Stern Radio Show, syndicated, 1999
  • Guest, Ruby, BBC (England), 1999
  • Guest, Howard Stern, E! Entertainment Television, 2000
  • "Mickey Mantle," ESPN Sports Century, ESPN, 2000
  • "Wilt Chamberlain," ESPN Sports Century, ESPN, 2001
  • Guest, Primetime Glick, Comedy Central, 2001
  • Guest, "Analyze That," HBO First Look, HBO, 2002
  • Himself, "Secrets and Lies," The Bernie Mac Show, Fox, 2002
  • Guest, Leute heute, 2002
  • Himself, "SportsCenter 25K," SportsCenter, ESPN, 2002
  • Voice of John Adams, "United We Stand," Liberty's Kids: Est. 1776(also known as Liberty's Kids), PBS, 2002
  • Voice of John Adams, "Postmaster General Franklin, Liberty's Kids: Est. 1776 (also known as Liberty's Kids), PBS, 2002
  • "TV and Movie Week," Supermarket Sweep, 2002
  • Himself, Filmland, 2003
  • Guest, The Oprah Winfrey Show, syndicated, 2003, 2004
  • Guest, Extra, syndicated, 2003
  • Interviewee, "Best Sports Movies," ESPN25: Who's #1?, 2004
  • Interviewee, "Best Plays," ESPN25: Who's #1?, 2004
  • Interviewee, On the Record with Bob Costas (also known as Costas Now), HBO, 2005
  • Guest, The Tony Danza Show, syndicated, 2005
  • Guest, Live with Regis and Kelly, syndicated, 2005
  • Also appeared in episodes of Alan King: Inside the Comedy Mind; Celebrity Profile, E! Entertainment Television; Dinah; Keep OnTruckin'; Life's Most Embarrassing Moments; The Mike Douglas Show; and That Was the Year that Was.
  • Other
  • Guest, Saturday Night Live with Howard Cosell (pilot), ABC, 1975
  • Baseball (miniseries; also known as A History of Baseball),PBS, 1994
  • Himself, Dick Schaap: Flashing before My Eyes, 2001
  • Himself, The 2003 ALCS: A Rivalry Renewed, 2003
  • (In archive footage) Comedy Central Presents: 100 Greatest Stand-ups of All Time (miniseries), Comedy Central, 2004
  • Television Work
  • Specials
  • Director, "Split Decision," Likely Stories, Vol. 3, 1983
  • Executive producer and director, Comic Relief, HBO, 1986
  • Producer and director, "Billy Crystal--Don't Get Me Started," On Location, HBO, 1986
  • Executive producer and director, Comic Relief II, HBO, 1987
  • Executive producer, Midnight Train to Moscow, HBO, 1989
  • Executive producer, My Uncle Berns, HBO, 2003
  • Other
  • Creator and executive producer, Sessions (series), HBO, 1991
  • Executive producer, Survival on the Mountain (movie), NBC, 1997
  • Executive producer and director, 61* (movie; also known as 61), HBO, 2001
  • Stage Appearances
  • Master of ceremonies, Cabaret (musical), Ohio production, 1981
  • Night of 100 Stars II, Radio City Music Hall, New York, NY, 1985
  • 700 Sundays (solo show), La Jolla Playhouse, La Jolla, CA, 2004, then Broadhurst Theatre, New York City, 2004-2005
  • RECORDINGS
  • Albums
  • Mahvelous! (comedy album), A & M/Polygram, 1985
  • Compiler, Billie Remembers Billy, Verve, 2004
  • Compiler, Billy Crystal Presents the Milt Gabler Story, Verve, 2005
  • Videos
  • Your Favorite Laughs from "An Evening at the Improv," 1984
  • Big City Comedy, Artisan Entertainment/Vestron Video, 1985
  • Making "Mr. Saturday Night," Wrightwood Group, 1992
  • Oscar's Greatest Moments, Columbia TriStar Home Video/RCA-ColumbiaPictures Home Video, 1992
  • Back in the Saddle: The Making of "City Slickers II," Wrightwood Group, 1994
  • How Harry Met Sally ... , Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists HomeVideo, 2000
  • The Greatest Summer of My Life: Billy Crystal and the Making of "61*," HBO Home Video, 2001
  • As You Wish: The Story of "The Princess Bride," Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists Home Entertainment, 2001
  • Voices of Animalympics characters, The Making of "Tron," Walt Disney, 2002
  • Appeared in the music videos "Sweet Freedom" by Michael McDonald and "Voices that Care."
  • WRITINGS
  • Screenplays
  • (With Eric Roth) Memories of Me, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, 1988
  • Mr. Saturday Night, Columbia, 1992
  • City Slickers II: The Legend of Curly's Gold (also known as City Slickers II and City Slickers: The Legend of Curly's Gold), Columbia, 1994
  • Forget Paris, Columbia, 1995
  • My Giant (also based on a story by Crystal), Sony Pictures Releasing, 1998
  • America's Sweethearts, Columbia, 2001
  • Analyze That, Warner Bros., 2002
  • Also writer (with Randy Newman) of the song "If I Didn't Have You," featured in the animated film Monsters, Inc., Buena Vista, 2001.
  • Television Specials
  • (With others) The TV Show, ABC, 1979
  • "Split Decision," Likely Stories, Vol. 3, 1983
  • (With Rocco Urbisci) Billy Crystal: A Comic's Line, HBO, 1984
  • A Comedy Salute to Baseball, NBC, 1985
  • Comic Relief, HBO, 1986
  • "Billy Crystal--Don't Get Me Started," On Location, HBO, 1986
  • Comic Relief II, HBO, 1987
  • An All-Star Toast to the Improv, HBO, 1988
  • (With others) Midnight Train to Moscow, HBO, 1989
  • "There's a Nightmare in My Closet," Goodnight Moon and Other Sleepytime Tales, HBO, 1999
  • Television Awards Presentations
  • Special Material
  • The 63rd Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1991
  • The 64th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1992
  • The 65th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1993
  • The 69th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1997
  • The 70th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1998
  • The 72nd Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 2000
  • The 76th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 2004
  • Television Series
  • The Billy Crystal Comedy Hour, NBC, 1982
  • Saturday Night Live (also known as NBC's Saturday Night, Saturday Night, Saturday Night Live '80, SNL, and SNL 25), NBC, 1984-85
  • Sessions, HBO, 1991
  • Television Episodes
  • Writer for The Love Boat, ABC.
  • Stage Scripts
  • (With Alan Zweibel) 700 Sundays (solo show), La Jolla Playhouse, La Jolla, CA, 2004, then Broadhurst Theatre, New York City 2004-05
  • Other
  • (With Dick Schaap) Absolutely Mahvelous (autobiography), G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1986
  • I Already Know I Love You (juvenile), illustrated by Elizabeth Saylos, HarperCollins, 2004
  • Contributor to books, including Rolling Stone Book of Comedy, edited by Bonnie Schiffman and Bill Zehme, 1991. Contributor to periodicals, including New York Times and Playboy.

Further Reference

ADAPTATIONS

  • The 1991 film City Slickers was based on a story idea by Crystal.
OTHER SOURCES
    Books
    • Crystal, Billy, and Dick Schaap, Absolutely Mahvelous, Putnam, 1986
    • International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers, Volume 3: Actors and Actresses, 4th edition, St. James Press, 2000
    • St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture, St. James Press, 2000
    Periodicals
    • AARP, March, 2004, pp. 52-56
    • American Film, July-August, 1989, pp. 30-33, 48
    • Cosmopolitan, June, 1986, p. 80
    • Empire, Issue 47, 1993, pp. 54-55; Issue 77, 1995, p. 11
    • Entertainment Weekly, June 17, 1994, pp. 26-29
    • Gentlemen's Quarterly, August, 1989, p. 199
    • In Style, April, 1998, p. 296
    • Life, July, 1989, p. 68; April, 1990, p. 90
    • McCall's, July, 1991, p. 58
    • New York Times, December 6, 2004
    • People Weekly, September 30, 1985, p. 40; March 30, 1998, p. 19
    • Playboy, September, 1985, p. 140; March, 1988, p. 47
    • Premiere, January, 2003, p. 94
    • Rolling Stone, October 24, 1985, p. 49
    • Sports Illustrated, January 10, 2005, p. 16
    • Total Film, November, 2001, pp. 66-70
    • TV Guide, November 15, 1980, p. 30; March 24, 1990, p. 5; August 1, 2004, p. 10
    • U.S. News & World Report, March 23, 1998, p. 65
    • US Weekly, March 17, 2003

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